Time Detectives uncover Weatherman Simon Parkin’s Grandfather; The Underage War Hero


Simon Parkin

simonparkin

Having had some success with Fred Dinenage’s Family Tree, I was asked to see what I could find out for Simon Parkin, the Meridian Weatherman.  There didn’t seem to be anything too mysterious about it on first research;  but once we got further into it Time Detectives solved the mystery of a young runaway couple and an underage war hero in Simon’s past.  Read on…

Origins of the Parkin’s

The name “Parkin” shares the same root as Perkin, being a mediaeval name derived from Peter, more or less a nickname as “Little Peter”. It is predominately a Northern name concentrating in Yorkshire, Durham, and Derbyshire, which looked like it was further North than Simon’s awareness of his own ancestor’s roots in Lancashire.

The oldest ancestor we found for Simon in the Parkin line was George Parkin, a Labourer born in 1780 in the Sedgefield area of County Durham, in the village of Carlton near Stockton-on-Tees.  The Carlton that George grew up in had not changed very much since early mediaeval times.  Although the place itself is of English origin, the name has developed through Viking Norse, from Ceorlton (pronounced Churlton) in old English, i.e. the settlement of the Ceorls (tied peasants, often looking after livestock, one step above slaves), via the Norse substitution of the “K” sound for the English “Ch” sound, giving us our pronounciation of Carlton (with the same meaning).

normans

Durham being part of a semi-autonomous area of England that had been a major part of the Viking Danelaw before the Norman Conquest, would stubbornly resist the Normans, culminating in William the Conqueror’s “Harrying of the North”; where the Normans destroyed most villages and killed a high percentage of the local population in response to uprisings backed by the Viking King of Norway.  The street layout of Carlton still reflects the subsequent Norman design with long strips behind the cottages denoting each peasant’s strip of farmland, put in place after the Normans Carlton some time after the population had been murdered by them .

It’s possible that Simon’s ancestors were moved into this Village by the Normans to replace the ethnically cleansed population who had been butchered.  It would have been from this mediaeval time period that the Parkin surname developed.  The fact that a surname could survive derived from a first name is an illustration of the paucity of population in the area, less than 50 people in Carlton in 1200, rising to just over 120 two hundred years later, for if the population had been large there would have been too many “Peters” to differentiate between them on first name alone.  A clear sign of the centuries it took for the area to recover from Norman brutality.

George Parkin 1780-1850s

By the time we catch up with the Parkins a few hundred years and about twelve generations later in the late 1700s, George Parkin, Simon’s Great-Great-Great-Great-Great Grandfather was a Labourer travelling between farms looking for work on the fields or with livestock. George was born a few years after America won its Independence from Great Britain, and would have been a teenager when the French beheaded their King by Guillotine. He was completely unaware of Electricity, Gas, or Steam Power.  The fastest he had ever seen a man travel was on a horse, across the fields chasing a fox.  If he travelled it was by foot, his house would have been lit by candles, and his only supply of water would have come from a pump over a well in the centre of the village.ploughing

It is unlikely that he ever travelled more than five or six miles from the main town of Sedgefield, but that was far enough to let him meet Margaret Hutchinson on his travels around the farms in the area, and he  he married Margaret in 1811.  They would settled down to live in the delightfully named Horse Shoe House, near Fishburn, Sedgefield, and this is where they would raise their two sons Thomas and William.

Life was hard for a common labourer and harder still in old age which was both a blessing and a curse; It is likely that George and Margaret lived in poverty in old age, George died at the age of about 75 in the 1850s, probably in the local Workhouse, Margaret survived into her mid 80s with the help of relatives for a while, but eventually also died in Sedgefield Workhouse in 1866.

William Parkin 1813-1870s

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William Parkin, Simon’s Great-Great-Great-Great-Grandfather travelled a little further than his Father’s generation, but still no more than about fifteen miles from where he was born, and indeed got himself a trade as a Blacksmith.  He probably served his apprenticeship at the newly industrialised area of Acklam, near Stockton, just south of the River Tees, starting at about 12 years of age, and spending 7 years training before becoming a Journeyman (qualified) blacksmith.  It was in Stockton-On-Tees, after the had finished his apprenticeship  that he married Mary Neasham in 1836, Mary had travelled up to Stockton from the Village of Easington, over the border in Yorkshire.

Qualified and with his new bride, he worked his way North from Stockton and Thornaby, first to Elwick, then to Cassop and Kelloe, each of his three children being born in those respective places during the 1840s.   Working back in his home area around Coxhoe and Cassop, he must have had a degree of success, as he became a Master Blacksmith in the 1850s, which meant that he had apprentices or other men working for him, no doubt making tools for the Coal Miners around Cassop.

Unfortunately this was not to last, as by the 1860s he had moved the family back down to Thornaby near Stockton to find work as a labourer.  This probably coincided with the mass production of iron and steel implements from factories in the Midlands and the North of England, forcing smaller Blacksmiths out of business.  This was a big step down in status and earnings, but at least in Thornaby fit men used to hard work were wanted for work in the potteries, glass works, and docks on the river.

It seems likely that life became very hard for William and Mary at this time, as both fall out of the records, implying that they were either living anonymously in the roughest areas, or condemned to the workhouse and not fully tracked in the records, it is most likely that Mary died in the 1860s, and William in the early 1870s in the Stockton area.

William’s generation had seen the rise of Industrialisation, turning much of the North of England from pleasant, sparsely populated farmland, to heaving blackened mines and sweaty workshops, towns booming almost overnight because of their proximity to navigable water, sources of power such as coal and water,  and raw materials for manufacturing iron, pottery, and glass.  Steam Power moved wheels and cranks, saws and giant hammers, flushed water from mines, and powered ships trains to speeds that would have been unthinkable when his father was a boy.  But Industrialisation was not a blessing for the poor, and William died younger than his Father had.

George Parkin 1847-1902

cabinetmakerSimon’s Great-Great-Great-Grandfather George Parkin trained as a Joiner.  He  must have been very skilled, as he became a Case and Cabinet Maker, also a Coachbuilder, and a Show Case maker, all of which were specialist areas within the Joiners’ craft.  He is never described as a “Master” therefore, unlike his father, never employed men to work for him, so he would have worked for an employer.

Being a skilled man life would have been good, but his life takes a dramatic turn in 1870 when he marries a young girl called Alice Bartho.  Although the marriage certificate shows her age as 19, in actual fact she was barely 16.  Considering George was 23, there was a definite element of an elopement here.  This is reinforced by the absence of George and Alice from the census records in 1871, perhaps showing that they did not want to be found. From the mid 1870s they are definitely living away from the Sedgefield/Stockton area, living in Middlesborough, and by the mid 1880s the family has moved out to Margrove Park near Skelton Castle, where George will have found work amongst the rich owners of the Iron Stone Mines and local aristocracy at Skelton Castle.  who were much more interested in his skill in making beautiful objects for their mansions than in the age of his young wife.

In the 1880s, about ten years after they married, they finally moved back to the Stockton area for a few years, but were eventually on the move again about 1890, this time more than100 miles south to Salford In Lancashire on the outskirts of booming Manchester, and in particular to the area of Broughton.  Boughton was an area owned by the Clowes family who decided that only a better class of worker could live there.  They controlled building to the extent of limiting the number of pubs that could be built in Broughton.  It is possible that Alice had a sister or cousin in service in Salford, as a girl with this very unusual surname turns up there at this time, which, along with simmering family resentment over their elopement, and the demand for the “better class” of skilled craftsman by the nouveaux riche in Salford, may explain how they came to take the long train ride down to Lancashire.

Once there the family lived well, and saw in the new century, but in 1902 George is struck down with Liver disease and died.  Liver disease has one common cause; heavy drinking, the curse of the working classes in Victorian England, and despite the lack of pubs in the Broughton area, there were plenty outside, and this may have been George’s downfall.  Alice was forced to rely more on the income from the children, including the girls who found employment like thousands of others in the Salford Cotton Mills. Alice lived another nine years till 1911, when she died of heart failure.

Thomas Parkin 1879 – 1936

Salford

Thomas Parkin born in Thornaby, moved with his parents to Margrove Park and then Salford.  Thomas had followed his father’s trade as a joiner, but perhaps without the same desire or need to travel as he stayed in the Salford area for the whole of his life.  Perhaps the travails of his parents lives, and seeing his father die, made him want stability more than the previous generation.  He married at the age of 20 to May rebecca Tristram, a Lancashire lass, and the sister of his elder brother’s wife.

He died in Broughton in 1936 of Lung Cancer.  Most likely he was a heavy smoker, as most working class men in industrialised cities smoked from an early age, perhaps from around 12 years old, and continued it through their lives.  This death was not pleasant for his family and had a big impact on his son George Henry, seeing his father lose his strength and dignity, and suffering as he died over some months.  The sight would haunt him and have a profound effect on his later life.

George Henry Parkin 1900 – 1967

George Henry was a man who maybe wasn’t all he seemed.  He worked as a Shell Forger in a munitions factory during WW1 and although married at the age of 17 he actually gave his age as 22 on the marriage certificate, so he was underage when he married.

In 1919 he is a Lance Corporal in the 5th Manchester Regiment.  But it has not proved possible to find an exact army record or medal record for him, so the mystery begins.  Cross referencing in other records Time Detectives found an entry for him in a publically subscribed War Roll, not an official document as such, but one that was paid for by members of the public paying to have their account of their war record included. The entry for G.H. Parkin, has him in the 1st rather than 5th Manchester Regiment, apparently volunteering a month before his 15th birthday in 1915!

cologne1919How did a 14 year old manage to pass as an older man?  Investigations with Simon turned up some family photos of George, and it turned out he was a physically big man, so he drew himself up, stuck his chest out and lied about his age to the recruiting sergeant, and subsequently to the Vicar at his wedding, and maybe even to his bride-to-be!  The record states that he fought at Arras, Ypres, the Somme amongst others, and was a member of the Army of Occupation of Germany based in Cologne, being officially demobbed in September 1920.  These facts seem to tally with the Manchester Regiment’s movements if he moved between battalions, especially the army of occupation around Cologne, an interesting detail that bears out his story.  The picture here shows British troops and Tanks drawing up outside Cologne Cathedral.

However there is still a mystery, as, when he marries in 1917, his occupation is given as a Shell Forger, a civilian role, and his medals listed on the war roll (not the official medal roll) only list the General Service and Victory Medals, if he had joined up in 1915 he should have also had the 1915 star.

What was the possible explanation?  It seems that the lie about his age had been discovered, and he was sent home, in which case he wouldn’t have received the Star as he had joined illegally.  Then later in the war when he was slightly older and the need for men had increased, he reenlisted and served with the Army of Occupation in the 5th Manchester Regiment as per his entry on his marriage certificate.   This would also explain the change in Battalion number.

After the war, at least from his return to England in 1919, just prior to being officially demobbed, George worked in a Flour Mill for many years.  This would have a tragic and unexpected effect on his later life.  During WW2 he worked as a Metal Presser, and by 1967 he is a Lorry Driver.

In his sixties George suffered with his breathing, and this raised fears in his mind about the cause, most alarmingly the thought of Lung Cancer haunted him, having seen the horror of his father’s long suffering before he died.  One afternoon after a visit to the family he took a cab home.  On the way he asked the Cabbie to pull over by the Salford Ship canal at Trafford Bridge,  he left the cab, walked onto the bridge and looked over into the dark water, after a few minutes he walked back to the cab, and told the driver to drive him home, within a few yards, he stopped the driver again, walked back to the bridge and threw himself in.  He drowned before he could be rescued.  The inquest came to the conclusion that he had committed suicide “while the balance of his mind was temporarily disturbed”.  the fear of Lung Cancer had driven him to despair.trafford bridge

The irony was that it was found at he had some damage to his lungs from working in the Flour Mill, but he was not suffering from Lung Cancer, his fears had been misplaced.  Simon knew nothing of his Grandfather’s death, and it was an obvious shock to him when that was revealed on camera.

This was the dramatic culmination of the show, and lead Simon to look further into his history with his family.

A poignant end to an interesting Family History mystery.

Vanessa Cuddeford from ITV’s “The West Country Tonight” gets the Time Detectives treatment


Time Detectives’ Fame Spreads in The Media

vanessacuddeford

Having worked with “The Meridian Tonight” team on Fred Dinenage’s Family Tree, and found his ancestors fighting at Waterloo against Napoleon and another going down on the Titanic, I was approached by delightful Vanessa Cuddeford of ITV’s “The West Country Tonight” programme to see what I could do for her Family History.

Cuddeford being a fairly uncommon name, the task looked straight forward, however there would be some twists to the story on the way.  Read on…

Origins of the Cuddeford Name

The first step was to find where the name originated from.  Cuddeford is an especially rare name, its distribution in the early 1800s was mainly from the southwest of England, with a few scattered familes in other areas notably the coastal areas of Cheshire, Kent and London, however, investigation showed that all of these Cuddefords in the early 1800s were almost certainly born in the West Country, and moved to other areas for work related reasons.  The name was absolutely anchored in the South West of England.

1200s The Lost Village of Cuddeford

The meaning of the name is more problematic.  It appears to be derived from “Cuthbert’s Foird” Cudde being a nickname for Cuthbert, and on this reasoning we would expect it to have been derived from a village called Cuthbert’s Ford or Cuddeford.  However such a place does not exist in The UK.  A mystery to start with?

The only clue is a mention of a place called Cuddeford in a mediaeval  text  from 1301 referring to the De Clyfford Family who held lands and knight’s fees in “Cuddeford and Coombe” and , “Awlescombe” villages.  None of these places now exist with those names, but “Awliscombe” is a village outside of Honiton, and it is therefore likely that there is a lost mediaeval village of Cuddeford in the same area.  Awliscombe is about a day’s walk from the Exeter area where we first find the Cuddeford family.

It is very likely therefore that the Cuddeford family, were itinerant peasants without their own surname, who left their home village probably around the 1350s most likely in the aftermath of the Black Death, when the population of England was reduced by a third.  Whole villages were wiped out by this outbreak of Bubonic Plague.

1300s A Mongol Khan decides the fate of the Cuddeford Family

The plague had originated in the Black Sea Steppes where the Genoese fortified trading post of Caffa was being besieged by the angry Khan of the Mongol “Golden Horde” in punishment for the Italians ignoring his authority.  Things took a turn for the worse when the plague first erupted in the camp of the besieging Mongols, and to avoid further infection of his own army and spread the infection among the Genoese, the Khan had the bodies of plague victims loaded onto his catapults in place of rocks, and hurled over the walls into the city.  This is likely to be the first reliably documented case of Biological Warfare in History!

Fleeing from the siege, the plague, and the Wrath of Khan, the Genoese put to see in their remaining galleys and headed off across the Black Sea to head back via Byzantium to Genoa.  But the plague was with them, on some ships the entire crews died before reaching home, and large Genoese Galleys manned by blackened corpses drifted like ghost ships for some time on the Black Sea.

kaffaThe few that did make it back, brought their diseased bodies, and flea infested rats with them to spread the plague in the major trading port of Genoa.  Within months it had spread across the Mediterranean, and on to France, where a ship from Bristol was loading up with wine in a port in Gascony, one of the West Country sailors became infected with the plague here, and by the time the ship reached port in the coastal village of Melcombe in Dorset, he was badly sick, and the plague now taking the Pneumonic form spread on the breath, he brought the infection in the the Kingdom of England, for good measure the ship sailed on to it’s home port of Bristol, ensuring that the plague would have a similar entry point there.

ploughThe plague averaged about a mile a day in its spread, the little village of Cuddeford lay immediately in its path from two directions, it would have taken about two months before the first signs of coughing and swellings at the armpits and groin would have manifested themselves in the village, and by the autumn of 1348 the Church graveyard would have been full, and by the winter there would have been corpses in the cottages, village lanes, and fields.  There would not have been enough able people left to bury the dead.  On average three quarters of people who came into contact with the disease caught it in it’s aggressive form, half of these died.  That’s on average, however in small villages with many people marrying locally and effectively having little diversity in the gene pool, it was apparent that whole villages were dieing out through lack of resistance.  Every European alive today who had ancestors in Europe at the time of the plague is descended from someone with a degree of natural immunity, all others died out.

So who was left?  In our case, Vanessa’s ancestors had enough immunity to survive and flee the dieing village of Cuddeford for a thresh start elsewhere.  We know they did this as their surname bears their heritage, i.e. the place they came from, not where they lived when they acquired the name.  There is no point in calling everyone in a village by the village’s name, this only happens when they leave it for somewhere else.

the Cuddeford name, like many in England, therefore, in a very real way, owes its origins to a Mongol Khan’s attack on a Genoese trading outpost in the South of Russia.

1300s -1600s The end of Serfdom

This small rag-tag band of survivors, now called Cuddefords, suddenly became a commodity in great demand by landowners, as the workforce in many areas had been wiped out.  Although against the Law at the time for peasants to leave their home Parish and seek work elsewhere, this meant that many peasants when they fled their home villages could find work for landowners who offered higher wages to those willing to relocate and risk the law in doing so.  Once in the new area, these peasants would have been called by the name of their old village for identification purposes, and this would eventually have become their surname, especially once they were being counted for the Poll Tax in the 14th and 15th centuries and required a surname to be identified for tax purposes.

Although it would take some time and a peasant’s revolt in the 1380s to help achieve it, the Black Death, thanks to the Khan of the Golden Horde, would ensure that peasants in England would no longer be serfs, but would be free men and women.  This the Cuddefords would be after walking for a day heading for the City of Exeter, finding their way barred by the panic stricken burghers of the city, afraid to admit more plague victims, they made it to the village of Ide just outside the City of Exteter, where landowners with a more pragmatic mind realised that if they weren’t dead from plague now, then they probably never would be, and were very welcoming of a fresh family to gather the hay and thresh the corn on newly inherited lands.  every cloud has a silver lining, for those marked out by genetic luck and ambition.  The family would remain in Ide for the next 300 years.

1700s The Family Move to Newton St Cyres

By the 1740s the Cuddefords had started to move again, this time from Ide to Newton St Cyres.  Why the move took place is not entirely clear, it may have been because of a marriage and better work prospects, or possibly because there were many boys born in each generation, and this may have cut down the number of opportunities for all of them to follow in the same family career as their father in the same location, causing some of the younger boys to look for opportunities in other villages in the area.  Whatever the reasons the stay at Newton St Cyres was short, after a couple of generations into perhaps the 1790s, the younger generations moved on again.

1790-1850 John Cuddeford a Butcher of PlymouthBUTCHER

The move from Newton St Cyres to Plymouth was probably not a hard decision.  Plymouth in the late 18th and early 19th century was a boom town on the back of the growth of the Royal Navy, and Plymouth was a major Naval Base.  So the opportunity for a Butcher with links to the farming communities round about would have been a good one. This was the first generation of the family that could definitely have considered themselves tradesmen and therefore middle class, rather than working class.   John Cuddeford moved to Plymouth to better his family selling meat to the Navy and growing populace of the town, and his family prospered, with 12 children over 20 years.

Life was good, but a Butcher had to look after his interests, and in 1832 John had a Sheep stolen from a business associate’s field, which may have proved to have been a hopeless case, had not the perpetrator one Francis Ford of Plymouth, not been seen by two witnesses in the field at 5 o’clock in the morning with his dogs, one of whom, he was loudly shouting “Towzer! Towzer!” to.  He used the dogs to corner the sheep by the hedge surrounding the field, then dragged it through the hedge leaving some of its wool stained with dye for identification stuck to the hedge.  He then proceeded to herd the reluctant sheep by tieing a string to one of its back legs and driving it forward with his knees against its hind quarters, obviously against its will, down the country lanes to Plymouth, he was seen by a witness doing this, and when he arrived near his house in Plymouth, stopped to verbally intimidate a neighbour, a shop keeper who was opening up for the morning, asking him What was he about?  Who he was looking at? And why he was stopping there?  he couldn’t have acted more guiltily if he’d tried.  Next his wife asked a passing neighbour to give her a light for a Candle in the house, letting him in where he came face to face with the Sheep in their living room.

Word of John Cuddeford’s loss, and Francis Ford’s sudden acquisition of a sheep for a lodger came together, and the local constable was sent round to investigate, where he found the skin, wool, and various cuts of mutton from the sheep concealed in the house.  Francis Ford was arrested just outside Plymouth, and said that he had not been home for several weeks, despite having been seen by a number of witnesses, and stopping to have an argument with his neighbour whilst holding the sheep on a lead!

In the court Ford put up a spirited, if inane defence, saying now that he had been away when the sheep went missing, and saying he had only gone home because his wife needed him to eject some drunken sailors from the house.  He also said that if he had been seen driving an animal alone the lanes, it had been a dog not a sheep, then brought his star witness, who swore he was of good character, and said that he had sold Ford some mutton for his dogs which could account for the mutton in the house.  Unfortunately under cross examination it was found that the witness was actually his son-in-law!  His defence collapsed, the jury found him guilty.  At this point this would just seem like an amusing story with the petty criminal being found out and suitably punished, were it not for the fact that in 1832 the Judge considered a suitable punishment to be the death penalty.  The Judge donned the black cap and sentenced Francis Ford to be taken to a place of execution and hanged by the neck until dead.

John Cuddeford prospered and  he lived to the ripe old age of 82 in Plymouth.

1807 -1874 Charles Cuddeford Customs Man

Dorewarehousebythames(00)Charles Cuddeford didn’t follow his father into the Butchery trade, nor did he have to leave the area to find employment, for as Plymouth boomed, so did the opportunities for bright and educated young men. Charles found his niche working for the crown as a Customs Man.  His role was to have charge of the Royal Customs Stores in Plymouth, a very responsible position, and one that required a high degree of integrity, literacy and numeracy.

Charles raised and educated his family in and around Plymouth and would have been a well known member of the community, ensuring his nine children were well educated and had a secure future.

Charles lived to be 67, finally dying of a weak heart, which had debilitated him sometime before with Dropsy causing swelling in his feet and legs due to poor circulation, and forcing him to walk with a stick.

One interesting fact is that at least four generations of Cuddefords that we are aware of had deaths through heart failure in the family, so in the male line at least, there seems to be a tendency to this, perhaps a fair swap for the genes that enabled the original Cuddefords to survive the Black Death?

He left a few hundred pounds for his wife Elizabeth on his death, not a great amount of money, but a small windfall to provide for her in later life.  Elizabeth herself lived to be 84, and spent the last nine years of her life with her son William at his pub in Hemel Hempstead.

1846 – 1906 William Henry Cuddeford from The West Country to London to St Albans; Accountant, Seedsman, Florist and Publican

William Henry was born in Plymouth in 1846, and grew up there, and trained as an accountant, in keeping with his father’s trade as Keeper of the Queen’s Warehouse in Plymouth.  He marries a local girl Elizabeth Caroline Roberts Johns, the daughter of a Naval pensioner in 1868, and almost immediately after the couple leave Plymouth and catch the train to London.  Strangely William Henry turns up in Great Ormond Street, Holborn in London, as a “Seedsman” of all things, and as he is sometimes described as a Florist it seems that his business was Horticulture rather than Agriculture, how this came about is not clear.

All of the couple’s six children are born in the area, so were technically Cockneys.  The area they lived in was a reasonable one, lower Middle Class, and William must have made a good living, as he stays there for about 20 years, until in 1891 at the age of 45 he moves with the family to Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire and takes over the Queen’s Head Pub, as well as owning or renting a separate house for his wife and children nearby.  Again why the sudden change in employment, and relocation to a completely different area is a mystery, as is where the money came from to afford such a jump in circumstances.

WHCuddefordPerhaps the answer was that the family couldn’t really afford it, as in 1900 William Henry is declared Bankrupt.  Six years later Elizabeth, his wife of nearly forty years dies of Breast Cancer, followed four months later by William Henry, who by this time was living with his married daughter and her family in Manchester.  He died of TB, a condition generally of the poor, which may be an indication of how far he had fallen.

A sad end, as all of them are, to a varied and eventful life, with a large and stable family.  William Henry had definitely lived up to the aspirations of those first Cuddefords, who had made their way to Ide after the Black Death, succumbing ironically at last to the “White Death” of TB.

1872 – 1956 Charles Cuddeford from Broker’s Clerk to East India Company import and Export Merchant.

Charles being well educated and no doubt reasonably well connected in the import and export trade through his father’s Seed business, finds employment a s Broker’s Clerk in St Albans, and works his way up to becoming part of the business as an Import and Export Merchant, marrying a local girl Anne Gertrude Dixon there in 1898.  But for an ambitious man in a merchant’s company they was really only one place to be, at the centre of the thriving Empire, and at the turn of the 20th century he moves the family back to the London suburbs living in  Wilesdon, Cricklewood, and Hendon, much nearer to the centre of London commerce than rural St Albans.

charles cuddefordLife was good and the family prosperous but the age of large families was coming to an end, the couple had 2 children a boy and a girl born in 1902 and 1908.  Charles rise was strong culminating with him receiving the Freedom of The City of London in 1922.

Charles and Anne lived out their long lives together retiring to Westcliffe on Sea in Essex, and dieing within a year of each other in 1958 and 1959.

…and so on to today

The following generations brought us to Vanessa’s grandfather and father, and then to Vanessa.

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